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DICTIONARY of SEA TERMS 1841/1851

     Adapted from 'The Seaman's Friend...' by R. H. DANA Jr

Dana was the author of ‘Two Years Before the Mast’
[Boston: Thomas Groom & Co., 1851. 6th Edition, Revised and Corrected]
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FACE-PIECES Pieces of wood wrought on the fore part of the knee of the head.
FACING Letting one piece of timber into another with a rabbet.
FAG A rope is fagged when the end is untwisted.
FAIR-LEADER A strip of board or plank, with holes in it, for running rigging to lead through. Also, a block or thimble used for the same purpose.
FAKE One of the circles or rings made in coiling a rope.
FALL That part of a tackle to which thepower is applied in hoisting.
FALSE-KEEL Pieces of timber secured under the main keel of vessels.
FANCY-LINE A line rove through a block at the jaws of a gaff, used as a downhaul. Also, a line used for cross-hauling the lee topping-lift.
FASHION-PIECES The aftermost timbers, terminating the breadth and forming the shape of the stern.
FAST A rope by which a vessel is secured to a wharf. There are bow or head, breast, quarter, and stern fasts.
FATHOM Six feet.
FEATHER To feather an oar in rowing, is to turn the blade horizontally with the top aft as it comes out of the water.
FEATHER-EDGED Planks which have one side thicker than another.
FENDERS Pieces of rope or wood hung over the side of a vessel or boat, to protect it from chafing. The fenders of a neat boat are usually made of canvass and stuffed.
FID A block of wood or iron, placed through the hole in the heel of a mast, and resting on the trestle-trees of the mast below. This supports the mast. Also, a wooden pin, tapered, used in splicing large ropes, in opening eyes, &c.
FIDDLE-BLOCK A long shell, having one sheave over the other, and the lower smaller than the upper.
FIDDLE-HEAD (See HEAD.)
FIFE-RAIL The rail going round a mast.
FIGURE-HEAD A carved head or full-length figure, over the cut-water.
FILLINGS Pieces of timber used to make the curve fair for the mouldings, between the edges of the fish-front and the sides of the mast.
FILLER (See MADE MAST.)
FINISHING. Carved ornaments of the quarter-galley, below the second counter, and above the upper lights.
FISH To raise the flukes of an anchor upon the gunwale. Also, to strengthen a spar when sprung or weakened, by putting in or fastening on another piece.

Fish-front, Fishes-sides.. (See MADE MAST.)

FISH-DAVIT The davit used for fishing an anchor.
FISH-HOOK A hook with a pennant, to the end of which the fish-tackle is hooked.
FISH-TACKLE The tackle used for fishing an anchor.
FLARE. When the vessel's sides go out from the perpendicular. In opposition to falling-home or tumbling-in.
FLAT A sheet is said to be hauled flat, when it is hauled down close.

Flat-aback, when a sail is blown with it's after surface against the mast.

FLEET To come up a tackle and draw the blocks apart, for another pull, after they have been hauled two-blocks.

Fleet ho! The order given at such times. Also, to shift the position of a block or fall, so as to haul to more advantage.

FLEMISH COIL (See FRENCH-FAKE.)
FLEMISH-EYE A kind of eye-splice.
FLEMISH-HORSE An additional foot-rope at the ends of topsail yards.
FLOOR The bottom of a vessel, on each side of the keelson.
FLOOR TIMBERS Those timbers of a vessel which are placed across the keel.
FLOWING SHEET When a vessel has the wind free, and the lee clews eased off.
FLUKES The broad triangular plates at the extremity of the arms of an anchor, terminating in a point called the bill.
FLY That part of a flag which extends from the Union to the extreme end. (See UNION.)
FOOT The lower end of a mast or sail. (See FORE-FOOT.)
FOOT-ROPE The rope stretching along a yard, upon which men stand when reefing or furling, formerly called horses.
FOOT-WALING The inside planks or lining of a vessel, over the floor-timbers.
FORE Used to distinguish the forward part of a vessel, or things in that direction; as, fore mast, fore hatch, in opposition to aft or after.
FORE-AND-AFT Lengthwise with the vessel. In opposition to athwart-ships. (See SAILS.)
FORECASTLE That part of the upper deck forward of the fore mast; or, as some say, forward of the after part of the fore channels. Also, the forward part of the vessel, under the deck, where the sailors live, in merchant vessels.
FORE-FOOT A piece of timber at the forward extremity of the keel, upon which the lower end of the stem rests.
FORE-GANGER A short piece of rope grafted on a harpoon, to which the line is bent.
FORE-LOCK A flat piece of iron, driven through the end of a bolt, to prevent its drawing.
FORE MAST The forward mast of all vessels.
FOREREACH To shoot ahead, especially when going in stays.
FORE-RUNNER A piece of rag, terminating the stray-line of the log-line.
FORGE To forge ahead, to shoot ahead; as, in coming to anchor, after the sails are furled. (See FOREREACH.)
FORMERS Pieces of wood used for shaping cartridges or wads.
FOTHER or FODDER To draw a sail, filled with oakum, under a vessel's bottom, in order to stop a leak.
FOUL The term for the opposite of clear.
FOUL ANCHOR When the cable has a turn round the anchor.
FOUL HAWSE When the two cables are crossed or twisted, outside the stem.
FOUNDER A vessel founders, when she fills with water and sinks.
FOX Made by twisting together two or more rope-yarns.

A Spanish fox is made by untwisting a single yarn and laying it up the contrary way.

FRAP To pass ropes round a sail to keep it from blowing loose. Also, to draw ropes round a vessel which is weakened, to keep her together.
FREE A vessel is going free, when she has a fair wind and her yards braced in. A vessel is said to be free, when the water has been pumped out of her.
FRESHEN To relieve a rope, by moving its place; as, to freshen the nip of a stay, is to shift it, so as to prevent its chafing through.

To freshen ballast, is to alter its position.

FRENCH-FAKE To coil a rope with each fake outside of the other, beginning in the middle. If there are to be riding fakes, they begin outside and go in; and so on. This is called a Flemish coil.
FULL-AND-BY Sailing close-hauled on a wind.

Full-and-by! The order given to the man at the helm to keep the sails full and at the same time close to the wind.

FURL To roll a sail up snugly on a yard or boom, and secure it.
FUTTOCK-PLATES Iron plates crossing the sides of the top-rim perpendicularly. The dead-eyes of the topmast rigging are fitted to their upper ends, and the futtock-shrouds to their lower ends.
FUTTOCK-SHROUDS Short shrouds, leading from the lower ends of the futtock-plates to a bend round the lower mast, just below the top.
FUTTOCK-STAFF A short piece of wood or iron, seized across the upper part of the rigging, to which the catharpin legs are secured.
FUTTOCK-TIMBERS Those timbers between the floor and naval timbers, and the top-timbers. There are two - the lower, which is over the floor, and the middle, which is over the naval timber. The naval timber is sometimes called the ground futtock.

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