Mesolithic OrkneyOrkney was glaciated until around 15,000 BC. Radiocarbon dating to around 3,500 BC has been established at four important neolithic settlements; the Knap of Howar [KH on map at right] on Papa Westray associated with Unstan pottery; and Skara Brae [SB] in West Mainland*, the Links of Noltland [LN] on Westray, and Rinyo [R] on Rousay, all associated with ‘Grooved’ ware. They show Orkney to have had a resident human population living in settlements since at least the beginning of the Neolithic period (3,800 - 2,000 BC) in possibly two separate, coexisting cultures of uncertain ethnicity. “These are sites of established farming communities; it seems unlikely that they include the homes of the first pioneering colonists. We know effectively nothing about the first Orcadians.” [Berry 1985] (To put this in some sort of context, the earliest Egyptian pyramid at Djosser dates from ca. 2,600 BC; that at Giza and the construction of Stonehenge date from ca 2,400 BC.)

*Mainland used as a proper noun refers throughout to Orkney's principal island, formerly Hrossey on which SB, Y, W and V are marked at right; as a common noun it refers to the foreign country just south of Orkney and not shown on the map at right.

Finds of Mesolithic-type tools from Valdigar [V] and Tankerness, as well as flints at Yesnaby [Y], the Knap of Howar again and Seatter are evidence of humans, probably seasonal migrants, earlier than the Neolithic. Mesolithic (12,000 - 3,800 BC) stone buildings are unrecorded in Orkney or Scotland, but two circular timber buildings with central hearths have been found at Wideford [W] on Mainland lying underneath a stone building that dates to the Early Neolithic. [Denison 2003] “A charred hazelnut shell, recovered during the excavations at Longhowe in 2007, has been dated to 6820-6660 BC. This pushed back the earliest confirmed date of the occupation of Orkney by 3,000 years” [Wikepedia: ‘Tankerness’ 2.iii.14] There was birch and hazel scrub on Orkney till around 3,500 BC. Its disappearance is ascribed partly to deteriorating climate but mainly to human activity. Evidence of humans in Orkney has been pushed back even further by flint finds on Stronsay at Links House [LH] in 2007. Naomi Woodward, their discoverer, said; I think that it is quite early Mesolithic, dating from between 9000 BC - 7000 BC, but we'll need to wait for dates before we can know for sure... We're hoping we can get some charcoal deposits that will allow the site to be carbon-dated. Depending on these results, we could have Orkney's first in situ evidence of Mesolithic ‘settlement’. [Internet: Orkneyjar] If the dates prove correct this will not only be the earliest evidence of humans in Orkney but in the whole of Scotland.

agassiz.jpg There is no consensus whether any land-bridge connecting Orkney to the mainland ever existed or ig one did, when it disapperared. An animated map on a ‘Time Team’ programme [broadcast 2013] about Prehistoric tsunamis suggested that prior to the Storegga Slide (6,200 BC) such a bridge did exist. Be that as it may, two hundred years after Storegga, another massive tsunami swept across the Atlantic when the ice-wall retaining the waters of Lake Agaassiz gave way, releasing a greater volume of fresh water than all the Great Lakes put together. Apart from the direct destructive force of the water, global sea-levels would have been raised by an estimated 0.8 to 2.8 m. [Orkney is shown roughly to scale in red on the map at left; hover to see!] These tsunamis inundated ‘Doggerland’, thereby severing mainland Britain from Europe and must have swamped Orkney. J.J. Berry, citing J.D.Peacock of the British Geological Survey who wrote “it is highly unlikely Orkney was connected to the mainland after the arctic Loch Lomond Re-advance, 10,000 to 11,000 years ago”, and also Bailey in ‘Orkney’ [1971] giving as his opinion that the Pentland Firth remained dry land up to the Boreal period, about 9,500 years ago, J.J. Berry concluded; It would be wrong to be dogmatic about the existence of a land-bridge... All that it is safe to say is that any land-bridge cannot have persisted for long in conditions when animals and plants could pass over it. [Berry 1985]

It is estimated that sea levels may have been as much as 30 ms lower at the end of the last ice age than at present; with current charted depths of around 70 ms in the Pentland Firth between the mainland and Orkney, that still would have meant Orkney's first settlers had to cross deep water. [See navigation chart below; depths are in metres.]

To sumarise; Orkney around 6,000 BC, immediately post Storegga-Agassiz, must have been tabula rasa as far as humans were concerned and was probably separated from the mainland. Like most of us since, those who re-populated Orkney must have arrived by boat.

moosehide.jpg The likeliest sort of boats would have been hide boats similar to that at right; flat-bottomed, keel-less craft with hides stretched over a timber frame, all lashed in place and waterproofed with animal fat or resin. Construction of hide boats is quick, taking only a few days, and such boats are still used, e.g. in the extreme north-east of Siberia, where the indigenous people use them for hunting walrus and collecting birds eggs from outlying islands, a pattern of subsistence that would have been as familiar to Mesolithic and Neolithic Orcadians as it would have been to their 18th and 19th century descendants. Dugouts were certainly used in Neolithic Britain, but their construction requires shaping a large mass of timber, a resource not readily obtainable in the far north of Scotland, the presumed point of departure for early Orkney settlers. Dugouts are also heavy to transport [e.g. if a portage is required] and inherently unstable, especially when compared with beamier, flat-bottomed hide boats. Unlike single dugouts, two dugouts lashed together as a ‘catamaran’, would be relatively stable and able to carry livestock or cargo, as would their hide-bound counterparts. Dugouts, if used at all, and there is no evidence in Orkney that they were, might have conferred status on its owner or occupants, and been best used for ceremonial purposes or for war, piracy or raiding. They would have been fast and manoeuvrable compared to hide boats.

hideboat1.jpgIn Orkney the perishable organic components of hide boats would leave little or no direct evidence of their existence in the archaeological record, but there is plenty of evidence for their general use in later, written historical records as well as their being depicted in Roman mosaics and Assyrian friezes such as that below right. Clinker building only evolved in the last centuries BC and would have been beyond the means of early Orcadians. Even dug-out boats would have been very labour intensive and technically demanding given the very limited stone tools that were available, whereas all the timber components for a hide boat might be secured by simply cutting or breaking branches to length - see the interior of the boat at left - and persuading a suitable animal to part with the hull. There is ample evidence that the technology required to work the raw materials was already to hand; bone needles and flint and other stone cutters being comparatively common finds at Neolithic and earlier sites in Orkney.

assyrian.jpg Hide boats are capable of carrying a significant payload of people, livestock or other cargo. The Assyrian hide boat shown at right has a cargo of stone. Coracles or curraghs of varying sizes, which occured throughout the British Isles, were known to have been capable of undertaking long journeys. St Brendan the Navigator, ca. 490-570 AD, together with fourteen monks is known to have sailed from Ireland to Iona and beyond in a boat made of ox-hides stretched over a wooden frame coated in lanolin. An account of his voyages, written some 200 years later, describes sightings of land masses, volcanoes and other features that tally with St Kilda and Iceland and even, some claim, the fog-bound banks of Newfoundland. Such an epic voyage was recreated by Tim Severin in 1976 who, with a small crew, reached America in a reconstruction curragh. Such a voyage would have been arguably easier in St Brendan's lifetime or earlier owing to a climate that was a good deal warmer and less severe - ‘easier’ here being a relative term! There is strong archeological evidence connecting Ireland with Orkney where Neolithic finds suggest at least two cultures, one of which has affinities with that prevailing in Ireland e.g. Maeshowe and Newgrange.

pentlandchart.jpg Travel by boat had much to recommend it to Neolithic pioneers. Hacking a way through roadless, overgrown or wooded terrain would have been difficult and time-consuming. Similarly, grass, heath or sparse vegetation must have been more appealing to settle for early colonisers than thicker vegetation or woodland, all of which required clearing with nothing more than stone tools.

We now know that the Mesolithic settlement of Scotland extended to the N coast (Wickham-Jones & Firth 2000; Pannett forthcoming). The islands of Orkney would have been visible and, to skilled sea-farers such as those of the Mesolithic, the crossing, while difficult, would not have been impossible... Once in Orkney the islands offered a rich environment to her early inhabitants. Recent palaeo-environmental work has shown the development of locally mixed woodland vegetation ... and this suggests the presence of various animals and birds. The local seas and lochs were rich and there were plenty of other resources such as fresh water and stone for tools. It is unthinkable that people did not cross the Pentland Firth to make use of the plentiful resources they would find there.[Wickham-Jones 2004]

Orkney must have been a tempting prospect then, as visibly both fertile and comparatively close, Hoy being only six miles away now and less ‘then’, [but see below for more on distances], and South Ronaldsay slightly closer, but both separated from the mainland by six miles of turbulent water, the Pentland Firth. This is the constricted bottle-neck through which the North Atlantic tries to funnel its way eastwards into the North Sea on the flood, only to be compelled by gravity some six hours later to return whence it came, spewing westwards on the ebb at a slightly diminshed rate. Early settlers may well have indulged in a bit of island hopping via Stroma and Swona in order to reduce the distance at sea to a minimum - possibly as little as three miles. But what a three miles! Nowhere in British waters are tidal streams stronger than those around Orkney. Strongest of all are those which must be encountered first by anyone journeying northwards.

Orkney has complicated tides. It is affected by two independent systems, that of the North Atlantic and that of the North Sea. The two tides reach the Orkney coast with similar strengths, but from different directions and with different timings, the Atlantic peak arriving two to three hours before the southward travelling North Sea wave. This produces a net flow of water from west to east, and complex tidal interactions among the island sounds and in Scapa Flow. Some areas such as Hoy Sound and the Pentland Firth are subject to considerable tidal streams as a result (up to nine knots in the Pentland Firth). [Berry 1985]

And yet on the same page, a little further on...

Evidence from salinity patterns and from drift bottles indicate that the net flow through the Pentland Firth is westwards. The consequence is that Orkney is roughly encircled by a clockwise set of tidal streams. [Berry 1985]

Thus reassuringly sungates - see ‘withershins’ below.

The chart above gives only a generalized overview, with little indication of the many surprises that await the incautious or ill-prepared. Off nearly every headland in Orkney, overfalls and rough eddies develop at varying stages of the tide. For example, off the southern tip of South Ronaldsay, tide rips occur off Barth Head, The Wing, Brough Ness, Old Head and Halcro Head. A more extensive disturbance occurs between South Ronaldsay and the Pentland Skerries where the whole stretch of water on the flood develops a withershins* eddy counter to the prevailing stream. Swona, a tempting stepping stone between the mainland and Orkney, is similarly girt about by overfalls off North Head and The Tails of the Tarff to the south, and powerful eddies developing about a mile off alternating east-west. While such tidal anomalies can surprise the unwary they can be worked to advantage by someone with local knowledge. The general rule is that extensive and complex eddies develop ‘behind’ any skerry or island, to east or west of the obstruction dependant on the direction of the tidal stream. These are not small, freakish disturbances, but perturbations sufficiently severe and regular to be marked on the Admiralty tidal atlas, and big enough to swallow boats whole e.g. The Swilkie north of Stroma.

*Withershins or widdershins, witherwardis, woderwardis: against the sun, anti-clockwise. Motion only indulged in by the foolhardy or those of evil intent. Everything in Orkney had to be sungates or clockwise.

sealevel.gif The distances mentioned above are predicated by today's sea-levels, but around 6,000 BC sea-levels were certainly much lower, and remained low till as recently as about 2000 BC. With sea levels estimated to be 30 metres lower than today, the first settlers approaching Orkney from the south would have experienced an almost unrecognisable landscape compared to what we see today. [Orkneyjar] If the sea-level map at right is anything to go by, today's archipelago of separate islands coloured red would have formed basically one large island as coloured green. It also means distances to be covered by water would have been shorter than today and might even have permitted north-bound migrants to walk as far as Stroma. Against that, the tides may have run with even geater ferocity than today; having no outlet between islands to dissipate some of the energy, the whole mass of water would have been forced between ‘greater Orkney’ and Caithness. Since the construction of the Churchill barrier, the southward tidal flow through Hoxa Sound has increased by 2 knots. [Miller 1994] There is increasing archaeological evidence of early human occupation of land exposed by these earlier, lower sea-levels, as well as from core-sampling from the bottom of the Lochs of Stenness and Harray and Echna Loch [Wickham-Jones and Dawson]. Around Orkney relative sea levels would have been lower for much of the Neolithic, raising the possibility of submerged Neolithic sites and landscapes in the shallow seas between the islands. [Wickham-Jones] Sea-levels were previously thought to have stabilized at current levels around 5,000 BC whereas work by Wickham-Jones and Dawson at Echna Loch give a much later date of 2340-2570 BC, and at Voy, in Stenness, a date between 1440-1270 BC.

On the navigation chart above, and reiterated by Berry, conservative figures of 8 or 9 knots are given for the rate of tidal streams in the Pentland Firth between Stroma and the Pentland Skerries, where tidal streams are at their severest. Elsewhere around Orkney 4 to 5 knot steams are common. On the chart are several alerts in red saying “Tidal Streams (see notes)”. The Notes read as follows. PENTLAND FIRTH TIDAL STREAMS. The Pentland Firth has extremely strong and rapidly varying tidal streams, eddies and races which cannot be adequately shown on this chart. Spring rates of 12 knots occur and extreme rates of 16 knots have been reported. For details refer to Admiralty Tidal Stream Atlas NP 209. This should be used in conjunction with detailed pilotage information. 16 knots is incredibly fast! but then so is even 4 to 5 knots. The average competent human swimmer swims at less than ½ a knot. A good swimmer could achieve perhaps 2 knots for a very short time; an Olympian maybe 4 knots. The fastest speed ever recorded was just under 5 m.p.h. (about 4 knots) by Michael Phelps at the 2008 Olympics. Unless planing, a boat's speed is limited by the waterline length of its hull; the longer the hull, the greater the boat's potential speed. The maximum speed of a modern, hydro-dynamically efficient boat with a conventional hull of say 40 foot would be around 8½ to 9 knots regardless of how powerful the engine or wind. All swimmers and most boats would thus go backwards when encountering the average tide head on in the Pentland Firth, let alone at its strongest 12-16 knot rate.

Neolithic man did not have the luxury of consulting the Admiralty Tidal Stream Atlas or detailed pilotage information and the fact that Orkney and other northern isles were populated so successfully by several different populations attests to the high degree of Neolithic skill in boat building, seamanship, and navigation. It also suggests they either had a very pressing need to leave the Scottish mainland or were incredibly fool-hardy or courageous or all three. The journey could not have been undertaken light-heartedly or on a whim. Materials would have had to be assembled, craft constructed, watering and victualling seen to, breeding stock, animal and human, laid in and later on.

Neolithic boatmen must have had to deduce the timing and direction of their crossing from careful observation of the water separating them from Orkney. The Merry Men of Mey is an area of very rough and confused water stretching today more or less from St John's Point and the Men of Mey Rock on the mainland to Tor Ness on the southern tip of Hoy. It is clearly visible to anyone standing on the southern side of the Pentland Firth gazing wistfully north and dreaming of better times to come. Less obvious is The Swilkie, hidden from the same observer just to the north of Stroma. A swilkie is a whirlpool. The name originally meant a swallower. There's a reason for that! Here's what the ‘Historia Norwegiae’, written ca 1266, had to say about it.
The greatest of all whirlpools is to be found there, [i.e. Orkney] which engulfs the strongest ships, sucking them in at ebb tide and spewing out their fragments with a belch at flood tide.
Much later, the Elder Edda described The Swilkie as a magic quern, or grindstone, called Grotti which was stolen from King Frodi by a sea-king called Mysing who wanted it to grind salt. He ground so much that his ship sank in the Pentland Firth beneath its load. Undeterred, Grotti continued to grind till all the sea was salt and continues to grind to this day; “and as the sea rushes through the eye of the quern the roar of its movement can still be heard.” [Linklater 1965] Stroma itself derives its name from strom meaning stream, as in current, and ey an island. The names say it all; Stroma is in the eye of the maelstrom.

Anyone who made it to Orkney must have been ingenious, courageous, and lucky, an excellent basis for a gene pool. There were doubtless plenty who were ingenious, courageous but unlucky, who made no contribution to the gene pool. Luck would have been a pre-requisite six thousand years ago because all that could be relied upon to make the crossing would have been your own powers of deduction and calculation given that the collected benefit of human hindsight as now set out in Admiralty publications was several millennia ahead with a long trail of drint bodies in its wake. “The sea is the largest of all cemeteries, and its slumberers sleep without monuments.” [Mantell] Even with all the advantages of tide tables, and technological aids such as GPS and accurate weather forecasts, a trip across the Pentland Firth is always potentially hazardous. On the relatively small area covered by the navigation chart above there are several symbols with the word WRECK alongside. A crossing approximating that undertaken by Neolithic settlers but in a modern sea kayak is not something for the faint-hearted. The Pentland Firth journey has to be one of the most exposed and exciting open water crossings described within this book, [‘The Northern Isles’ by Tom Smith and Chris Jex] if not within the UK. The short distance covered during this journey is potentially one of the most exhilarating rollercoaster rides any paddler will experience - if their tidal predictions are incorrect! and A committing paddle for experienced paddlers who have a good working knowledge of tidal streams and their effect! and Tidal planning and a careful watch on the time during the journey are essential in order to benefit from any tidal movement and avoid the wrath of this unforgiving stretch of water. It is prudent to plan to complete the journey as close to the weaker neap tides a possible. A light wind and settled weather window is best chosen for the journey. The sea surrounding the Pentland Skerries is exposed to all wind directions. Rough water, standing white waves and difficult eddy lines may be present, even during good weather conditions.

How many made it to Orkney is not entirely a matter of speculation. It has been estimated that the Stones of Stennesss required 12,500 man-hours to construct whereas the Ring of Brodgar required 80,000 man-hours. These staggering amounts of labour cannot have been the effort of one or two individuals or even families but suggest great labour by many people however organized or coerced into participating in a common enterprise. What remains speculation is the number of those who perished in the attempt. An interesting comparison can be made with today's boat-people such as the migrants who continue to push northwards out of Africa as they have done ever since Homo sapiens first got the itch to travel a couple of hundred-thousand years ago. In spite of having clothes, access to relatively modern boats with engines, the use of mobile phones, GPS, flares and such like, and embarking in what at almost any time of year must be more favourable climatic conditions than those that can routinely be expected in the Pentland Firth, today's African migrants still perish in considerable numbers in the Mediterranean, just as their Neolithic counterparts must have done in the Pentland Firth. (The distances are greater; the shortest between Africa and Sicilly is that from the tip of the headland east of the Gulf of Tunis to say Marsala - about 90 miles, roughly Caithness to Fair Isle; from Mahdia to Lampedusa is around 80 miles.)

Even today, after crossing in comparative luxury and safety aboard a passenger ferry, there are people who swear “never again!” The same was true for many of those posted north to “bloody Orkney” in the two World Wars for whom, after enduring several days on the ‘The Jellicoe’, the nickname for troop trains from Euston to Thurso in both wars, the straw that broke the camel's back was often the short trip across the Pentland Firth. Neolithic boatmen were made of sterner stuff - which is just as well because crossing the Pentland Firth, an achievement in itself, was the start rather than the end of their difficulties.

hideboat2.jpgLandfall on Orkney is no pushover, especially if the craft you are in is at the un-manoeuvrable end of the flotsam spectrum. Orkney has plenty of weather, but if you had to pick a single characteristic feature it would be the wind. (There are over 60 words from Shetland describing wind, but not one of them for a warm wind!) In the north use of sail was not added to oars on clinker boats until the seventh century. Some hide boats may have had sails to help propel the craft in the desired direction, although the lack of a keel would have meant stability was a major issue as well as leeway. From Stroma or Swona the desired direction would logically have been northwards towards the centre of the landmass clearly visible only two or three miles away. Were such a course maintained, craft might have been able to enter Scapa Flow and gain some protection from prevailing west or south-westerly winds and where today there are plenty of small inlets and beaches on which to land. The immediate problem aiming northwards from Stroma or Swona is having to cross the savage alternating east- and west-flowing tidal stream which, to put it mildly, would be tricky in a hide boat.

Data based on High Water ABERDEEN for tide diamond ‘L’
58° 43’.6 N 3° 28’.3 W - see navigation chart above left.
  -6 -5 -4 -3 -3 -1 HW +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6
  094.gif 079.gif 090.gif 100.gif 133.gif 260.gif 265.gif 264.gif 255.gif 316.gif 347.gif 060.gif 106.gif
True°   094 079 090 100 133 260 265 264 255 316 347 060 106
Rate Springs 4.2 4.6 4.3 2.4 0.6 2.7 4.0 5.1 4.9 2.0 1.7 1.3 4.0
in knots Neaps 2.1 2.3 2.2 1.2 0.3 1.4 2.0 2.6 2.5 1.0 0.9 0.7 2.0

There is little margin for error. A slight miscalculation might easily result in craft being swept clear out to sea east or west of Orkney. Miss Orkney (a braw lass! but this ‘miss’ is a verb) and you're heading for the great blue yonder and would be lucky even to sight Shetland or the Faroes. Using Stroma and Swona as stepping stones would reduce time afloat, but getting ashore on either would not have been easy. Both are low-lying and rocky with few landing places and girt about by rost frequently spelt roost: the part of a tide-race where the main force of the current begins to slacken, and where (especially if there be contrary wind) very rough, steep, irregular and dangerous billows arise - like boiling water in a pot on a huge scale. [Marwick 1929]

vegvisir.gifGeographically Orkney does not welcome visitors from the west. In good weather this is the route taken by the Stromness ferry and gives a fine introduction to Orkney's almost unbroken, sheer, Atlantic face, with cliffs towering over a thousand feet high at St John's Head on the north-west of Hoy. The coast here is as dangerous as the open sea, providing a perfect example of what it is to be caught between a rock and a hard place. In the absence of a 100 hross-power outboard motor, being tatooed with the Vegvisir symbol [at left] might, as claimed, guarantee the bearer would never lose their way in storm or bad weather, even when the way was not known. Today, the unmistakable land-mark of the Old Man of Hoy gives notice that the journey is almost over, but he would not even have been a babe in arms when the first settlers of Orkney were scanning the coast, anxious for a place to land. [The Old Man's d.o.b. is uncertain; he is unmentioned in the Orkneyinga Saga; does not feature on Blaeu's 1600 or McKenzie's 1750 maps; but appears, two-legged, in a painting by William Daniell ca. 1817. He lost a leg later in the same century.] Even Hoy Sound, the western entrance to Scapa Flow, may not have existed or only been navigable at certain states of the tide - see sea-level diagram above. But from the west there is one chink in Orkney's armour; the Bay of Skaill or, as it was originally known, Sandvík - ‘Sandy bay’. For more about Sandwick, see here.

URLs were active at the time of writing in January 2014.
  • Berry, J.J.: The Natural History of Orkney [Collins, New Naturalist 1985]
  • Dennison, S: New Neolithic Settlements found on Orkney [British Archaeology, July 2003]
  • Linklater, Eric: Orkney and Shetland [Robert Hale, 1965]
  • Miller, James: A Wild and Open Sea. The story of the Pentland Firth. [The Orkney Press, Kirkwall 1994]
  • Wickham-Jones: [Internet 2007]
  • Wickham-Jones: [Internet 2004]
  • Orkneyjar:
  • Orkneyjar:
  • ‘Historia Norwegiae’ trans. by Devra Kunin (2008)
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